MEXICAN AMERICAN PROFESSIONAL HALL OF FAME

sandracalles

Sandra Calles, PhD

Dr. Sandra Calles is a psychologist, educator, life coach, mentor and activist. Her passion is to advocate for causes she believes in, teach about mental health topics, and guide others, so they may achieve success in their personal and career endeavors.

She has over 11 years of experience as a mental health professional having worked at various mental health facilities. Most recently she was a therapist at Los Angeles Harbor College at the Life Skills Center. While at Harbor College, she helped many students overcome emotional obstacles so they could transfer to universities and meet their career goals. She devotes her personal and professional life to political causes, and activities that promote mental health, women’s issues, the empowerment of Latinas through education, business ownership, financial literacy and political engagement. Dr. Sandra is a graduate of California State University, Dominguez Hills, earning both a BA in Human Services and an MA in Clinical Psychology. She earned her doctorate from Saybrook University in Psychology, where she developed a treatment modality from her research on survivors of sudden cardiac death. The treatment plan known as PROSPER, is an acronym detailing a healing plan that can be applied to survivors of various traumas and is the underpinning for the work she does with her clients..... Continue Reading

Humberto’s Articles About M.A. Professionals

Mexican American Proarchive: Annual Report on Mexican American Professionals

News from the census American Community Survey is generally good for the 2015 year. Mexican American college enrollment was up from 18.7% to 18.9% in the 2014 and 2015 years. Graduate or professional degree attainment was also up from 2.9% to 3.0%. The number of bachelor’s degrees granted to Mexican American students rose from 7.6% in 2014 to 7.8% in 2015.

  2012-15 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT
  2012 2013 2014 2015
  Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans
College Enrollment 28.80% 18.20% 28.30% 18.10% 28.00% 18.70% 27.80% 18.90%

 

  2012-15 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
  2012 2013 2014 2015
  Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans
Graduate or Professional Degree 10.90% 2.90% 11.20% 2.80% 11.40% 2.90% 11.60% 3.00%
Bachelor’s Degree 18.20% 7.00% 18.40% 7.30% 18.70% 7.60% 19.00% 7.80%
Associate’s Degree 29.20% 21.90% 29.20% 21.80% 29.10% 22.20% 29.00% 22.10%

In spite of these gains, Mexican Americans still remain at the bottom of the ladder when it comes to earning a bachelor’s degree. Even after broadening the group to Latinos or Hispanics, this group still lags behind. According to the Pew Hispanic Center: “As of 2014, among Hispanics ages 25 to 29, just 15% of Hispanics have a bachelor’s degree or higher. By comparison, among the same age group, about 41% of whites have a bachelor’s degree or higher (as do 22% of blacks and 63% of Asians).” Pew reports that the main reasons for this low graduation rate is that Hispanics are less likely “to enroll in a four-year college, attend an academically selective college and enroll full-time.”

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Also in the good news column, the University of California will continue to push for a greater number of underrepresented minorities; namely, Chicano/Latino students whose resident freshmen numbers rose from 2.7% to 32.3% of admitted California freshmen. In other good news, the proportion of Chicano/Latino students transferring from community colleges increased to 29.3% from 26.8% for 2015.

  UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
  Prior to 2015 2015
Chicano/Latino of admitted California Freshmen 2.70% 32.30%
Chicano/Latino transferring from Community Colleges 26.80% 29.30%

Occupations, including those in management, business, science, and art, fared better for Mexican Americans. The number of Mexican Americans filling these occupations rose from 17.4% in 2014 to 17.5% in 2015.

  2012-15 OCCUPATIONS
  2012 2013 2014 2015
  Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans
Management, Business, Science, & Art Occupations 36.10% 16.60% 36.30% 16.70% 36.90% 17.40% 37.10% 17.50%

The total number of Hispanics filling these occupations was 16.1% in 2015, a bit lower than Mexican Americans specifically.

Percentage of industry employment that is of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2014 annual averages

Industry sector Percent
Construction 27.3%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting 23.1
Leisure and hospitality 22.3
Other services 19.0
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 18.6
Transportation and utilities 17.2
Wholesale and retail trade 16.4
Total, all industries 16.1
Professional and business services 16.0
Manufacturing 15.8
Education and health services 11.5
Public administration 11.4
Financial activities 11.3

Information
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
The report shows that industrial employment for Mexican Americans remained the same for 2014 and 2015 at 10.2%.

  2012-15 INDUSTRY
  2012 2013 2014 2015
  Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans Total Population Mexican Americans
Professional, Scientific, Management, Administrative, & Waste Management Services, Occupations 10.90% 10.20% 11.10% 10.20% 11.40% 10.20% 11.30% 10.20%

The figures for Hispanic or Latino employment for 2015 and 2016 show a healthy increase.

According to the Pew Hispanic center, “Construction, professional and business services, health services, financial services and food services…showed healthy gains.” Most of the jobs gained by native-born Hispanic workers were in manufacturing, mostly durable goods (82,000 Hispanic workers in this industry), followed by wholesale and retail trade (79,000), publishing, broadcasting, communication and information services (55,000), and construction (54,000).

Foreign-born Hispanics had the most job gains in construction (417,000), followed by business and professional services (179,000). Together, those two industries accounted for almost three-quarters (74%) of all jobs gained by foreign-born Latinos between 2005 and 2006.

The business and professional services sector, which ranges from management and technical services to janitorial, landscaping, and waste management services, is also a key employer for non-Hispanic workers. Of the total increase in employment in 2005-06, non-Hispanic workers accounted for 410,000 employees in the industry, native-born workers 327,000, and foreign-born workers 83,000.

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Sources

Census Bureau, Selected Population Profile in the United States 2015

Pew Research Center

University of California

Bureau of Labor Statistics

New Mexico: Outstanding Multicultural State – Four Out Of Five Stars

Mural at a popular New Mexico restaurant

Mural at a popular New Mexico restaurant

When I travel to Santa Fe, New Mexico, I marvel at how the Native American, Spanish, and Mexican cultures exist within one state. At least on the surface, there seems to be a great deal of respect for each other’s customs and inclusion of all culture in art and architecture.

The photo below is a good example of the blending and inclusion represented in the Zimmerman Library at the University of New Mexico campus. It shows Pueblo Revival architecture at its finest, with its heavy wood lintels to its striking viga-and-corbel ceilings.

New Mexico - Zimmerman Library at UNM

The photo below is another good example from the Rio Grande Nature Center State Park near Albuquerque. Here we see the entrance to the center showing a corrugated culvert that was probably salvaged from a nearby acequia.

New Mexico - Rio Grande Nature Center State Park

Many years before Spanish settlements, ancestral Puebloan peoples had developed an organized manipulation of water resources as early as 800 A.D.

This skill continued to be developed and by 1400 they had managed to create a gravity-fed irrigation system on the major rivers in New Mexico.

The very word acequia is from early Spanish settlements that inherited an amalgam of irrigation systems from the Roman Empire and the Moors. With the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, this amalgam of Spanish and Indian laws and customs was mixed with existing American law and custom.

Beyond New Mexico’s cultural inclusiveness and diversity, there are still several areas that the state has failed at achieving.

New Mexico’s population is 47.7% Hispanic and 38.9% white (not Hispanic or Latino), but only 23.6% of firms are owned by Hispanics, and 5.3% are owned by American Indians—a very poor showing. According to the National Center for Higher Education, “New Mexico’s personal income has fallen from 83% of the U.S.average in 1960 to 74% in 2000.”

Speaker on Student Quad at UNM

Speaker on the Student Quad at the University of New Mexico

The National Center for Higher Education also concluded: “The education system in New Mexico (from high school to college completion) fails to retain Hispanics and Native Americans at nearly the rate of whites and Asians. These racial/ethnic disparities are also evident in the graduation rates of baccalaureate students…”

In summary, New Mexico is an outstanding example of a multicultural state but has some work to be done in addressing the disparities of their majority and minority ethnic groups.

From the Delano Grape Strike to the Mexican American Vintners Association

By Humberto Gutierrez

MAVA - Mexican American Vintners Association

There have been several longitudinal studies on Mexican American mobility showing that although the monetary movement of Mexican Americans is not quite as rapid as that of whites, there is still a steady accumulation of wealth across generations.

This mobility is evidenced by the progress made by Mexican American professionals. As evidence of this success, we have witnessed the birth of several prominent professional associations. Most notable are:

  • MAES, Latinos in Science and Engineering
  • AMAE, Association of Mexican American Educators
  • MABA, Mexican American Bar Association
  • SACNAS, Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science
  • MAHPA, Mexican American Hispanic Physicians Association
  • MABPA, Mexican American Business and Professional Association
  • MALFA, Mexican American Latino Faculty Association
  • MAVA, Mexican American Vintners Association

The latest American Community Survey shows year-to-year progress, or lack of it, on the survey’s annual census.

Prominent among this year is the continued progress of Mexican American college enrollment, which has jumped from 18.1% in 2013 to 18.7% in 2014. Unfortunately, graduate or professional degrees remain low with a small gain. For 2013, the graduate or professional degree was 11.2% and for 2014 this percentage climbed to 11.4% for the total population, while for 2013 it was 2.8% for Mexican Americans, and 2.9% for 2014.

2012-2014 College Enrollment

2012-2014 Educational Attainment

Occupations in management, business, science, and arts showed a nice increase for Mexican Americans, from 16.7% to 17.4% while for the total population percentages went from 36.3% in 2013 to 36.9% in 2014. Mexican Americans still lag far behind the total population but there is a slight gain as compared to the total population.

Occupations

For industry, numbers have gone up slightly for the total population but have remained stagnant for Mexican Americans.

2012-2014 Industry

References

  • Census Bureau, Selected Population Profile in the United States: 2014
  • United States S0201 and B05006. Selected Population Profile in the United States
  • Population Groups: Mexican and Mexico (foreign-born)
  • Data Set: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates for years 2012 and 2014
  • Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, Selected Population Profile in the United States

Slow and Steady Progress for Mexican American Professionals: The results of the American surveys for the years 2010-2012 show positive results

By Humberto Gutierrez
Edited by Kristen House

College enrollment showed an increase of 1.4 percent from 2010 to 2012—a positive sign for Mexican Americans wanting to achieve higher academic and professional goals. Here is the data.

2010-2012 College Enrollment Comparison Between Mexicans and the Total Population

College and/or Graduate School Enrollment

Educational attainment shows no change to the terrible numbers of 2.6 percent for the years 2010 and 2011 but there is hope in that 2012 showed a small gain to 2.9 percent.

2010-2012 Graduate or Professional Degree

Graduate or Professional Degree

Bachelor's Degree

Associate Degree

For occupations, there was a .2 percent increment yearly, but still shows that in management, business, science, and art occupations, there is still a wide gap between the total population at 36.1 percent for the year 2012 and 16.6 percent for Mexican Americans.

2010-2012 Occupations Comparison Between the Total Population and Mexicans

Occupations

For professional, scientific, and management and administrative and waste management services, there is a close correlation between the percentage represented by the total population and Mexican Americans.

2010-2012 Industry Comparison Between the Total Population and Mexicans

Industry

Summary:

There is hope at the end of the tunnel. College and university enrollment has been trending higher for Mexican Americans. Unfortunately, the percentage of students with graduate degrees stayed the same for the years 2010 and 2011, but rose a small amount in 2012. Percentages showing students with BA and AA degrees trended higher—an encouraging sign. Occupations still showed a wide margin between the total population and Mexican Americans. The Mexican American population showed a small increase in professional, scientific, and management and administrative and waste management employment while the total population showed a small but steady increase in this area.

References:

  • Census Bureau, Selected Population Profile in the United States: 2010 – 2012
  • United States S0201. Selected population Profile in the United States
  • Population Group: Mexican and Total Population
  • Data Set: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates

Hopeful Gains in Higher Education for Mexican Americans

By Humberto Gutierrez
Edited by Kristen House

The latest figures from the 2013 American Community Survey show progress in the wide gap between the total US professional population and Mexican Americans:

  • 2012 college and/or graduate enrollment was 28.8% for the total population but only 18.2% for Mexican Americans.
  • 2013 college and/or graduate enrollment was 28.3% for the total population, 18.1% for Mexican Americans, and 33.3% for foreign-born Mexican Americans.

College enrollment for the total population has decreased from the years 2012 to 2013 by 463,000 according the Census Bureau as stated in their Sept. 24, 2014 press release.

For Mexican Americans, there was also an enrollment decrease, but not as pronounced. Mexican American enrollment dropped by only .1% whereas for the total population, there was a .5% drop in college enrollment.

2012-2013 College Enrollment

College and/or Graduate School Enrollment

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Educational attainment for the general population has risen by .3% from the years 2012 to 2013. For Mexican Americans, it has decreased by .1%

Earned bachelor’s degrees for the general population have risen by .2% and a bit more for Mexican Americans at .3%

Associate degrees and/or some college has shown little change across the board.

Unfortunately, only 2.8% of Mexican Americans and 1.5% of foreign-born Mexican Americans completed a graduate or professional degree in 2013. This is an extremely low percentage because the total population completion of a graduate or professional degree in 2013 was 11.2%. Why are Mexicans and native-born Mexicans not obtaining their graduate degrees? While only 7.3% of Mexican Americans have B.A. degrees, many are settling for associate degrees—21.8% of Mexican Americans and 12.1% of foreign-born Mexican Americans are ending their academic careers upon achieving these two-year degrees, according to the 2013 data.

2012-2013 Educational Attainment

Graduate or Professional Degree

Bachelor's Degree

Associate Degree

OCCUPATIONS

For the year 2013, the data for civilian employed population 16 years and over in management, business, science, and arts occupations is: 36.3% for the total population, 16.7% for Mexican Americans, and 9.2% for foreign-born Mexican Americans. Again, dismal figures.

Compared to the 2012 results, which were for the total population of 36.1% and for Mexican Americans 16.6%, there was a .2% increase for the total population and .1% for Mexican Americans. There was also a .2% increase for foreign-born Mexican Americans. Not much change, but some hope.

Occupation

Occupations

INDUSTRY

For professional, scientific, management and administration, and waste management services, 2013 employment for the total population was 11.1% and 10.2% for Mexican Americans, with foreign-born Mexican Americans at 11.5%. The 2012 results were for the total population 10.9% and 10.2% for Mexican Americans with the foreign-born Mexican Americans at 11.6%. No change for Mexican Americans and a .2% increase for the total population. However, a happy surprise: in 2013, foreign-born Mexican Americans topped all groups at 11.5% with a small decrease from 2012.

Industry

2012-2013 Industry

This represents a mixed picture for Mexican Americans and for foreign-born Mexican Americans in their quest for parity with the total population.

Solution for Retaining Minority Students in Higher Education

Scott Watson Swail’s 2003 report (1) on student retention programs in higher education states that a comprehensive student retention program should:

  • rely on proven research
  • suit the particular needs of the campus
  • be institutionalized and become a regular part of campus service
  • involve all campus departments and all campus personnel
  • take into consideration the dynamics of the change process and provide extensive and appropriate retraining of staff
  • be student centered
  • operate in a cost-effective way, and not be tied to soft monies
  • have the support of a comprehensive student monitoring system that will become the foundation of all institutional research on campus and support every department
  • be sensitive to student needs and to diverse populations.

At least some of the above recommendations would go a long way to encourage many minority students to continue their higher education by obtaining a graduate or professional degree.

Berkley, Stanford, UCLA, and Caltech collaborate to boost minority Ph.D. students by recruiting underrepresented students in mathematical, physical and computer sciences, and in engineering.

UC Berkley put it best: “The four schools are creating a unique, cross-institutional community of underrepresented minority Ph.D. students, postdoctoral scholars, and faculty members in the targeted fields; developing faculty training to better recognize and help these students thrive and advance; and conducting research that includes annual surveys of Ph.D. students about what factors impact their attitudes, experiences and preparation for the future.”(2)

References

  • Census Bureau, Selected Population Profile in the United States: 2012 and 2013
  • United States S0201 and B 05006. Selected population Profile in the United States
  • Population groups: Mexican and Mexico (foreign-born)
  • Data set: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates for years 2012 and 2013.
  • Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, Selected population Profile in the Untied States.

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(1) Watson Scott Swail, Retaining Minority Students in Higher Education: A Framework for Success, George Washington University, 2003

(2) Gretchen Kell, “Berkeley, Stanford, UCLA, Caltech unite to boost number of minority Ph.D. students, faculty,” UC Berkley News Center, February 13, 2014

RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY FOR 2011: a comparison of the results for the years 2010 and 2011 contrasting the total population of the United States and Mexican American professionals

By HUMBERTO (TITO) GUTIERREZ
Edited by Corrie Cripps

Mexican American women have been making slow but steady gains in business, science and art management jobs over the past few years, according to statistics from the 2011 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. However, Mexican American professionals continue to be underrepresented among the total U.S. professional population. This brief identifies areas of interest in the 2011 American Community Survey to Mexican American professionals.

Note: The statistics in this brief refer to the population who reported themselves as Mexican Americans on the American Community Survey.

According to the Survey, the total population of the U.S. is 311,591,919.

The Mexican American population is 33,557,922, roughly 10.8% of the total U.S. population.

College and/or Graduate School Enrollment

  • 28.3% of the total population was enrolled in college or graduate school in 2010. In 2011, this number increased to 28.7%.
  • 16.8% of the Mexican American population was enrolled in college or graduate school in 2010. In 2011, this number increased to 17.6%.

Charts: Total population enrolled in college and/or graduate school, Total U.S. population vs. Total Mexican American population

Enrollment in college and-or graduate school - U.S. Population vs. Mexican American

Educational Attainment:

  • 17.7% of the total population earned bachelor degrees in 2010. In 2011, this number increased to 17.9%.
  • 6.7% of the Mexican American population earned bachelor degrees in 2010. In 2011, this number increased to 6.9%.
  • 10.4% of the total population earned graduate and professional degrees in 2010. In 2011, this number increased to 10.6%.
  • 2.6% of the Mexican American population earned graduate and professional degrees in 2010, and this percentage remained the same in 2011.

Table: Educational attainment, bachelor degrees or higher

Note: In the following chart, each statistic stands for itself, i.e. do not add the male percentage to the female percentage to get a total.

Persons with a bachelor’s degree or higher are those who have received a bachelor’s degree from a college or university, or a master’s, professional, or doctorate degree.

  2010 2011
  Total Population Mexican American Total Population Mexican American
Graduate or professional degree 10.4% 2.6% 10.6% 2.6%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 28.3% 16.8% 28.7% 17.6%
Males with bachelor’s degree or higher 28.5% 8.4% 28.7% 8.6%
Females with bachelor’s degree or higher 27.9% 10.4% 28.3% 10.6%

 

OCCUPATIONS

Note: this data in this section includes only persons 25 years of age and older. The percentages are obtained by dividing the counts of graduates by the total number of persons 25 years old and over.

Occupations: Female employed civilians, age 25 and older:

  • 39.4% of the total population of women in 2011 were employed in management, business, science, and arts occupations. Mexican American women represent 22.1% of the Mexican Americans employed in management, business, science, and arts occupations.
  • Between 2007 and 2011, there has been a 1.7% increase (20.4% to 22.1%) in the number of Mexican American women employed in management professional and related occupations. In this area, the female general population figure has increased from 37.9% in 2007 to 39.5% in 2011, a 1.6% increase.

Occupations: Male employed civilians, age 25 and older:

  • Between 2007 and 2011, there has been a 1.7% increase in the number of Mexican-American males in management and professional occupations.

Table: Occupations, Civilian employed population, age 25 and older

  2010 2011
  Total Population Mexican American Total Population Mexican American
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 35.9% 16.2% 36.0% 16.4%
Males in management, business, science, and arts occupations 32.8% 12.4% 32.7% 12.5%
Females in management, business, science and arts occupations 39.4% 21.7% 39.5% 22.1%

Industry: Civilian employed population 16 years and older:

  • 10.6% of the general population was employed in the professional, scientific, management, administrative and waste management services in 2010. In 2011, this number only increased by .1% to 10.7%.
  • 10.1% of Mexican Americans were employed in the professional, scientific, management, administrative and waste management services in 2010. In 2011, this percentage remained the same.

Public Administration:

  • In 2010, the total population was 5.2% in public administration and 3.5% for Mexican Americans.
  • In 2011, the total population was 5.1% in public administration and 3.4% for Mexican Americans. As with the Industry statistics, there was virtually no change from 2010 to 2011 in this area.

 

SUMMARY

Comparison of the 2010 and 2011 ratios of professionals in the general population and in the Mexican American population shows little change. In general, graduate and professional degrees among the total population are more than triple when compared with Mexican Americans who have earned graduate or professional degrees. On the bright side, there is at least one area where the ratio is almost equal; women have, again, gained ground in business, science and art management.

Reference Documents from the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey

RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY FOR 2010: a comparison of the total population of the United States and Mexican professionals

By HUMBERTO (TITO) GUTIERREZ
Edited by Carol Ponzio
Graphs by Mara Ann Fuller

The total population of the United States is 309,349,689.

The Mexican American population is 32,929,683, roughly about 11% of the total population.

The following are the results of a partial comparison of these two groups for professional occupations.

FOR EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:

  • The 2010 Graduate or professional degree was 10.4% for the total population.
  • The 2009 Graduate or professional degree was 10.3% for the total population, a gain of .1% for the total population.
  • The 2010 Graduate or professional degree was 2.6% for Mexican Americans.
  • The 2009 Graduate or professional degree was 2.5% for Mexican Americans, also, a gain of .1%, however the gap is still 7.2% between the total population and Mexican American educational achievement in professional degrees.

Educational Attainment - Grad & Prof Degrees - U.S. Population vs. Mexican American

These numbers have remained steady for the last two years, but when we look at the breakdown for men vs. women, the numbers are very different.

The 2009 number for male bachelor’s degrees or higher for the total population were 28.4% vs. 8.2% for Mexican Americans.

The 2009 number for female bachelor’s degrees or higher for the total population were 27.4% vs. 9.9% for Mexican American women. The difference between male and female for the total population in 2009 was in favor of males 28.4% vs. 27.4% for females. Males have a 1% advantage. In 2009 there was a 1.7% gap in favor of Mexican American females, 9.9% for women vs. 8.2% for men, a 1.7% advantage for women.

The 2010 number for male bachelor’s degree or higher for the total population was 28.5% vs. 8.4% for Mexican Americans.

The 2010 number for female bachelor’s degree or higher for the total population was 27.9% vs. 10.4% for Mexican Americans. The difference between male and female for the total population in 2010 was in favor of males, 28.5% vs. 27.9% for females, but the gap has narrowed to .6% between the genders, down from 1% in 2009. For Mexican American males the gap in 2010 is 8.4% vs. 10.4% for females, a gap of 2% in favor of females, which have gained from 1.7% in 2009 to 2.0% in 2010.

Educational Attainment - Bachelor Degrees - U.S. Population vs. Mexican American

OCCUPATIONS: Male civilian employed 16 years and over:

  • In 2009, management professional and related occupations results were: 32.6% for the total population, vs.12.2% for Mexican Americans.
  • In 2010, management professional and related occupations results were: 32.8% for the total population, vs. 12.4% for Mexican Americans. The ratios have remained close for these groups. A gain of .2% by both groups, but Mexican American men are underrepresented by 20.4%, as compared with the total population.

OCCUPATIONS: Female civilian employed 16 years and over:

  • In 2009, management professional and related occupations: total population, 39.1%, Mexican American, 21.4%.
  • In 2010, management professional and related occupations: total population, 39.4%, Mexican American, 21.7%.

As a general statement the gap between the total population and women is narrower than with men. For women it’s only 17.7% instead of 20.4% for men. What is also of interest is the percentage of women vs. men in this group, which is 9.3% if favor of Mexican American women over Mexican American men.

Educational Attainment - Grad & Prof Degrees - U.S. Population vs. Mexican American

INDUSTRY: Civilian employed population 16 years and older:

  • In 2009, the results for professional, scientific, management, administrative and waste management services were 10.6% for the total populations vs. 10.1% for Mexican American.
  • In 2010, the results for professional scientific, and management, and administrative waste management services were 10.6% for the total population vs. 10.1% for Mexican American population. The numbers have remained the same and are one area, which shows equality between the total population and Mexican American population.

For public administration:

  • In 2009, the total population was 4.8% in public administration and 3.2% for Mexican Americans.
  • In 2010, the total population was 5.2% in public administration and, 3.5% for Mexican Americans. This comparison shows that Mexican Americans lost .1% in this category.

SUMMARY

Ratios of professional employment have remained the same for the total population of the United States vs. the Mexican American population. To a large extent, Mexican American professionals remain underrepresented among professionals in general, but Mexican American women have gained ground in some areas.

Reference Documents from the U.S. Census Bureau

 

New Statistics on Mexican American Professionals from the 2009 Community Survey

NEW STATISTICS ON MEXICAN AMERICAN OCCUPATIONS AND GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL DEGREES

By HUMBERTO (TITO) GUTIERREZ
Edited by Carol Ponzio
Graphs by Daniel Borg

The American Community Survey for 2009 has just been released by the Census Bureau.

OCCUPATIONS:  Management, professional, and related occupations.

A comparison of the American Survey for the years 2008 and 2009 shows that Mexican Americans have gained .3% in Management, professional, and related occupations:

2008 Total population 34.9% vs. 15.5% for   Mexican

2009 Total population 35.7% vs. 15.8% for Mexican

If you look closely, the gain in the total population is .8%. This number is higher than the gain by Mexican Americans which is .3%.

Management, Professional & Related Occupations

EDUCATIONAL  ATTAINMENT

The results for Educational Attainment shows the following results:

Again I am comparing the years 2008 and 2009 from the American Community Survey.

Bachelor’s degree or higher

2008 Total population 27.7% vs. 9.0% for Mexican.

2009 Total population 27.0% vs. 9.0% for Mexican.

In this case there has been a drop of .7% in the total population with Bachelor’s degrees or higher.  The percentage of Mexican Americans with Bachelor’s degrees or better has stayed the same at 9.0%.  I will call this a small step towards improvement in our educational attainment.

Educational Attainment

A COUPLE OF SPECIFIC INDUSTRIAL AREAS

Civilian employed population 16 years and over:

2008 Professional, scientific, and management, and administrative and waste management services

Total population 10.4% vs. 9.9% for Mexican.

2009 Professional, scientific, and management, and administrative and waste management services

Total population 10.6% vs. 10.1% for Mexican.

These numbers show that in Science, Mexican Americans are represented in fairly even percentages in contrast to the total population.  The only explanation I can think of for this equality is that Language and Culture do not play as big a role in Science as they do in other occupations.

The percentages also show a slight gain for Mexican Americans from 9.9% to 10.1%, although not as much of a gain as the general population which went from 10.4% to 10.6%.

Professional, Scientific, and Mgmt, Admin and Waste Mgmt Services

One last industry:

Educational services, and health care and social assistance.

2008 total population 21.7% vs. 13.7% for Mexican.

2009 total population 22.7% vs. 14.5% for Mexican.

Although Mexican Americans didn’t make the same gain as the general population, the gain they made was close to the gain in the general population.

Educational Services and Health Care and Social Assistance

Sources:

1. U.S. Census Selected Population Profile in the United States.
Population Group: Mexican
Data Set: 2008 American Community Survey
see data here

2. U.S. Census Selected Population Profile in the United States.
Population Group: Mexican
Data Set: 2009 American Community Survey
see data here

Mexican American Professionals: Clarification

The previous two articles I wrote regarding Mexican American Professionals were based on a broad definition of professionals. I used our population with college degrees or higher as the bases for my articles. Since then I have obtained new data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to broaden my definition of Mexican American Professionals to include most individual who are employed as doctors, teachers, lawyers, etc. (see the list of professions on the next page to the article)

In 2007 the total white employment for age 16 years and over was 146,047,000.

The total employed persons of Mexican ancestry was 12,908,000, or about ten percent of the white employed population. The total Non-Hispanic white population in 2007 was 199.1 million and for Mexican Americans it was 29.1 million.

If you compare the percentage of Mexican Americans vs. White Professional workers:

Mexican vs White Professional Workers by Percentage 2007

Mexican vs White Professional Workers by Percentage 2007

The chart shows what minuscule portion of employed professionals Mexican Americans occupy. Mexican Americans were only 3.63% of Professionals in 2008 as compared to the total Mexican American vs. white worker population which is about 8.84%. The Healthcare field shows only a 6.69% showing among this professional group.

The following chart is a detailed comparison of the percentage of Mexican Americans vs. White Professional workers. It is significant to note that among professionals Mexican Americans represent only 2.13% of employed professionals as compared to White workers in computer and mathematical occupations while in service occupations such as farming, fishing and forestry they weigh in at 27.3%.

Mexican vs White professional workers detailed breakdown 2007

Mexican vs White professional workers detailed breakdown 2007

The following charts show the distribution of Mexican Americans and White workers by sector.

Mexican American occupation by sector 2007

Mexican American occupation by sector 2007

White American occupation by sector 2007

White American occupation by sector 2007

These charts show the distribution of occupations and it is clear to see the disparities in management and professional occupations. 15% of Mexican Americans are involved in management and related fields where 35% of Whites are professionals. Roughly 24% of Mexican American workers are employed at service occupations whereas less than 17% of White workers are doing those jobs.

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One final note

It is interesting to note that in 2008 there are (0) averages for Mexican Americans involved in the following professions:

  • Funeral directors

  • Financial examiners

  • Mathematicians

  • Actuaries

  • Agricultural Engineers

  • Biomedical Engineers

  • Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

  • Nuclear engineers

  • Conservation scientists and foresters

  • Physical scientists

  • Sociologists

  • Urban and regional planners

  • Nuclear technicians

  • Directors, religious activities and education

  • Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

  • Media and communication equipment workers

  • Podiatrists

  • Audiologists

  • Health diagnosing and treating practitioners

  • Fish and game wardens

  • Ship and boat captains and operators

Conclusions and Prospects

If you examine the trend for the years from 2007 to 2008 it’s not an optimistic one. In the chart Management and professional occupations the numbers are not moving up from year to year and in some cases the number have gone down.

I have not read any studies that nail down why these numbers are not showing improvement, but there are some writers who do offer some explanations.

Mitchell A. Kaplan in an article for the Hispanic Outlook on March 3, 2009 states that Hispanics face five major social and economic barriers to educational opportunity. They are:

  1. Lack of supportive social and economic resources….

  2. The immigrant and socioeconomic status of their parents.

  3. The lack of parental knowledge of the internal workings of the American educational system.

  4. Inadequate school resources to help compensate for educational disparities.

  5. Weak relationships that Hispanics form with their teachers that tend to undermine their success.

Once again, please note that the above statements refer to Hispanic and not specifically to Mexican Americans.

It is my hope that some of these negative trends turn around.  They are a reminder that great disparities in professional employment still exist between the white community and the Mexican American community.

Sources:

1. “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity”, 2007. U.S Department of Labor. Report 1005.   P. 4, 9

2. Household Data: Annual Averages. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employed Hispanic or Latino workers by sex, occupation, class of worker, full-or part-time status, and detailed ethnic group.


  

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Poem
“…And would it have been worth it, after all,
Would it have been worth while,
After the sunsets and the dooryards and the sprinkled streets,
After the novels, after the teacups, after the skirts that trail along the floor—
And this, and so much more?—
It is impossible to say just what I mean!
But as if a magic lantern threw the nerves in patterns on a screen:
Would it have been worth while…”

T.S. Eliot
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Press Release

2015 Annual Report on Mexican American Professionals Now Available

The 2015 Annual Report on Mexican American Professionals is now available on Mexican-American-Proarchive.com.

News from the 2015 American Community Service shows good increases in the numbers of Mexican Americans attending college, achieving educational attainment, and holding jobs in industries including science, management, and business.

• Mexican American college enrollment increased from 18.7% to 18.9% between 2014 and 2015
• Graduate or professional degree attainment among Mexican Americans rose from 2.9% to 3.0%
• The number of Mexican Americans achieving bachelor’s degrees rose from 7.6% to 7.8% in 2015

Despite these numbers, Mexican Americans are still near the bottom of college enrollment and educational attainment by race and ethnicity.

The University of California is proactive in pushing for a greater number of underrepresented minorities. The number Chicano/Latino students attending UOC increased by 2.7% since 2014; this group now makes up 32.3% of admitted university freshmen.

In terms of occupations, the number of Mexican Americans making up part of the management, business, science, and art occupations continues to rise, from 16.6% to 17.5% from 2012 to 2015. Mexican Americans have also seen consistent numbers in the professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services occupations, keeping steady at 10.2% of all jobs in these fields held by Mexican Americans.

These numbers represent continuing gains in higher education and professional jobs for Mexican Americans. For more, visit Mexican-American-Proarchive.com.